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Using Puppeth, the Ethereum Private Network Manager

Original Source: https://www.sitepoint.com/puppeth-introduction/

We’ve previously written about Geth, one of the most popular Ethereum nodes.

Download screen

When you install Geth with helper tools, it comes with a handy tool called Puppeth, which you can use to maintain and install various helper tools for managing and deploying your private blockchain. Puppeth can also be installed independently if you have Go installed, with the following command:

go get github.com/ethereum/go-ethereum/cmd/puppeth

Let’s take a look at the tool.

Note: this tutorial will require you to have two remote machines at your disposal. Whether that is a virtual machine like Homestead Improved or an actual server on your network, or a combination of the two, doesn’t matter. We’ll go through the setup procedure with VMs in this tutorial.

Note: due to a bug in Puppeth, this approach might not work if your virtual machines (see below) are too small. Either make bigger VMs (more RAM) or wait for a fix if that’s not an option.

Bootstrapping

We’ll follow this process to get two virtual machines up and running. We need two machines because we’ll be running two Ethereum nodes, each on its own IP address.

Note: This is a limitation of Puppeth, as it’s not possible to deploy a sealing node on the same machine using this tool.

If you don’t know what Vagrant is, and what tools we’re using here, we recommend you read this introduction to Vagrant, which breaks it down in a newbie-friendly way.

mkdir my_project; cd my_project
git clone https://github.com/swader/homestead_improved hi_puppeth1
git clone https://github.com/swader/homestead_improved hi_puppeth2

Change the IP address of the second clone by going into the hi_puppeth2 folder and modifying the IP address field to be 192.168.10.11 instead of 192.168.10.10.

Next, open up some ports on the VMs by modifying each clone’s Homestead.yaml’s final section, like so:

ports:
– send: 8545
to: 8545
– send: 30301
to: 30301
– send: 30302
to: 30302
– send: 30303
to: 30303
– send: 30304
to: 30304
– send: 30305
to: 30305
– send: 30306
to: 30306

Don’t forget to add these virtual hosts into your host machine’s /etc/hosts file as well. Otherwise the VMs won’t be accessible by their domain name!

192.168.10.10 homestead.test
192.168.10.11 puppethnode.test

Note: change the IP addresses if the addresses of your VMs differ.

Finally, run vagrant up; vagrant ssh to boot each machine and SSH into it. Remember to run this from two separate tabs so you can keep both machines open and running.

Prerequisites

Now let’s install the prerequisite software on each machine.

Puppeth runs helper applications and Ethereum nodes for you in Docker containers, so we need Docker. It’s also useful to install Geth itself.

sudo add-apt-repository -y ppa:ethereum/ethereum
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install
apt-transport-https
ca-certificates
curl
software-properties-common
ethereum
docker.io
docker-compose

All other prerequisites will be pulled in by Puppeth through docker itself, but we need to make sure the current user is allowed to operate Docker commands first:

sudo usermod -a -G docker $USER

On the host machine (outside the VMs), we should create new Ethereum accounts in the folder where we’re running our project.

If you’re using the VMs as suggested above, that can be in myproject if myproject is the parent folder which contains hi_puppeth1 and hi_puppeth2.

mkdir node1 node2
geth –datadir node1 account new
geth –datadir node2 account new

Make a note of the addresses generated by this process:

$ mkdir node1 node2
$ geth –datadir node1 account new
INFO [05-20|10:27:20] Maximum peer count ETH=25 LES=0 total=25
Your new account is locked with a password. Please give a password. Do not forget this password.
Passphrase:
Repeat passphrase:
Address: {aba88be2dc16eaed464e3991eed5a1eaa5e7b11b}
$ geth –datadir node2 account new
INFO [05-20|10:27:35] Maximum peer count ETH=25 LES=0 total=25
Your new account is locked with a password. Please give a password. Do not forget this password.
Passphrase:
Repeat passphrase:
Address: {655a6ea9950cdf9f8a8175fda639555f17277bdf}

We need two accounts because at least two signers are needed in a Proof of Authority blockchain (more on that later).

Puppeth

Now that our VMs are running and our accounts are initialized, let’s see what Puppeth offers. With the remote servers/VMs still running, in a new tab on your host machine run Puppeth with puppeth.

The first thing it’ll ask for is the network name. This is useful for identifying various blockchains if you’re running several on your local machine. We’ll use “puptest” here.

Please specify a network name to administer (no spaces or hyphens, please)
> puptest

Sweet, you can set this via –network=puptest next time!

INFO [05-20|10:32:15] Administering Ethereum network name=puptest
WARN [05-20|10:32:15] No previous configurations found path=/Users/swader/.puppeth/puptest

Now let’s connect to our “remote” servers so that Puppeth has them in the list and can do operations on them.

The post Using Puppeth, the Ethereum Private Network Manager appeared first on SitePoint.

Collective #428

Original Source: http://feedproxy.google.com/~r/tympanus/~3/XzJuKjYpdOw/

C428_WOTW

Inspirational Website of the Week: 2018 Foosball World Cup

A fantastic table football implementation for this year’s soccer world cup. Our pick this week.

Get inspired

C428_Udemy

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From web dev beginners courses to accelerated JavaScript training, Udemy has something for everyone. Learn basically anything and discover new skills and passions.

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C428_face

face-api.js

A JavaScript API for face detection and face recognition in the browser implemented on top of the Tensorflow.js core API.

Check it out

C428_gradients

Drawing Images with CSS Gradients

An in-depth tutorial on how to use CSS gradients to draw complex shapes by Jon Kantner.

Check it out

C428_currentstate

Current state of webdesign

Will you realize what this is about in less than 3 seconds? 🙂

Check it out

C428_gobelins

Heraclos

The magical final WebGL project by students of GOBELINS Paris.

Play it

C428_layoutlab

The Experimental Layout Lab

Jen Simmons relaunched her labs section and added some more demos that show the possibilities of CSS Grid.

Check it out

C428_backspace

Backspace Rethought

Louis Anslow shares a brilliant idea for backspace using the drag interaction.

Read it

C428_babel

On Consuming (and Publishing) ES2015+ Packages

A very interesting article by Henry Zhu how the community might move to a “post-ES5” package ecosystem.

Read it

C428_menu

CodePen Challenge: Menu

A fun, bouncy menu created by Adam Kuhn.

Check it out

C428_audiovis

Plexus Shaders

A futuristic WebGL music visualizer made with Three.js together with Vertex Shaders and Fragment Shaders.

Check it out

C428_mkcert

mkcert

A simple tool for making locally-trusted development certificates without requiring any configuration.

Check it out

C428_sass

How and Why We Unit Test Our Sass

Lindsey Wild shares how unit testing Sass code is done at Sparkbox.

Read it

C428_font

Free Font: Kalpazan

Vladimir Fedotov shares one of the styles of his new font family “Kalpazan”.

Get it

C428_ml5js

ml5.js

A library that aims to make machine learning approachable for a broad audience of artists, creative coders, and students. It provides access to machine learning algorithms and models in the browser, building on top of TensorFlow.js with no other external dependencies.

Check it out

C428_shapesdesandro

Solids

Some 3D magic by Dave DeSandro using the <canvas> drawing API.

Check it out

C428_painting

The Garden of Earthly Delights by Jheronimus Bosch

A beautiful, interactive documentary that provides an in-depth tour though “The Garden of Earthly Delights” painting.

Check it out

C428_icons

150 Free Vector Icons

A great set of beautifully designed and versatile vector icons in three different styles. By Elmira Gokoryan.

Get it

C428_truchet

Truchet

Amazing experiments in GLSL Truchet tiling and patterns by Liam Egan.

Check it out

C428_stationary

Stationery Branding & Identity Mockup (PSD)

A modern stationery and identity branding mockup by the folks of GraphicPear.

Get it

C428_500

Thank You

Liam Egan celebrates his 500 Codepen followers mark with this beautiful demo.

Check it out

C428_RevealSlideshow

From Our Blog
Triple Panel Reveal Slideshow

A fullscreen image slideshow with lateral image previews and a reveal animation using TweenMax.

Check it out

Collective #428 was written by Pedro Botelho and published on Codrops.

Collective #429

Original Source: http://feedproxy.google.com/~r/tympanus/~3/VZrxaI__Y-c/

C429_mockup

Shotsnapp

A fantastic tool for creating mockup presentations for your design. Made by Gaddafi Rusli.

Check it out

C429_Be

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C429_access

Designing for accessibility is not that hard

Pablo Stanley shows us seven easy-to-implement guidelines to design a more accessible web.

Read it

C429_tenori

Tenori-off

A smart music sequencer that uses Machine Learning to try to match drums to a synth melody. Made by Monica Dinculescu.

Check it out

C429_scrollgradient

Scrolling Gradient

Mike Riethmuller created this demo where a background gradient changes according to the scroll position.

Check it out

C429_tree

Reduce JavaScript Payloads with Tree Shaking

Jeremy Wagner explains how to use tree shaking, a form of dead code elimination, to improve JavaScript performance.

Read it

C429_doodle

SVG Pattern Doodler

Niklas Knaack created this fantastic demo where a simple algorithm draws patterns and doodles into an SVG element.

Check it out

C429_array

An adventure in sparse arrays

Remy Sharp explores sparse arrays and shares some common pitfalls when dealing with them.

Read it

C429_singlie

Singlie

A progressive and minimal implementation of the circular and linear singly linked list data structures in modern ES6.

Check it out

C429_leira

Free Font: Leira

A playful brush font designed by Evita Vilaka.

Get it

C429_interneting

Interneting Is Hard

In case you missed it: A resource of friendly web development tutorials for complete beginners.

Check it out

C429_scroll

fakeScroll

A lightweight and robust custom-looking HTML scrollbar script.

Check it out

C429_react

React From Zero

A simple yet comprehensive React tutorial.

Check it out

C429_ch

What is the CSS ‘ch’ Unit?

Eric Meyer explains the ch unit in CSS.

Read it

C429_generative

Generative WorldCup

An experiment with the world cup statistics API and canvas to generate abstract patterns for each soccer match.

Check it out

C429_fontsize

Pixels vs. Ems: Users DO Change Font Size

An interesting article with data on how many users actually change the font size in their browsers. By Evan Minto.

Read it

C429_chart

ChartGen

An SVG chart generator that utilizes the Box-Muller transform to generate random trending data for realistic SVG line and bar charts.

Check it out

C429_transemails

Everything You Need To Know About Transactional Email But Didn’t Know To Ask

Some advanced best practices for transactional emails by Garrett Dimon.

Read it

C429_fittext

Fitting Text to a Container

Chris Coyier explores the different ways of making a text size itself to fill a container.

Read it

C429_css4

Where is CSS4? When is it coming out?

Jen Simmons explains why CSS4 does not exist.

Watch it

C429_firejs

‘Fire’ visual effect in JavaScript

A short tutorial on how to create a pixel fire effect in JavaScript with just about 20 lines of code.

Read it

C429_more

More

A nice link animation made by Chris Gannon.

Check it out

C429_svgiconsystems

The guide to integrating and styling icon systems?- inline SVG and icon components

In this two-part series, Claudia Romano explains integration techniques for icon systems using practical code examples.

Read it

C429_vue

The Vue Handbook

A guide to Vue written by Flavio Copes. Free for a subscription.

Check it out

C429_gridtut

The simpleton’s guide to CSS Grid

An easy-to-follow guide to CSS Grid by Dennis Gaebel.

Read it

Collective #429 was written by Pedro Botelho and published on Codrops.

How to Plan a Website Overhaul in 2018

Original Source: http://feedproxy.google.com/~r/Designrfix/~3/HCRVANLXSI4/how-to-plan-a-website-overhaul-in-2018

It’s 2018, and you know what that means. Time for a website overhaul! Sure, if you’ve been building, managing, and growing websites long enough, then the thought of a website or a logo redesign will probably scare you away. Overhauling a website is just one of those things that cause more headaches and ruins by adding a […]

The post How to Plan a Website Overhaul in 2018 appeared first on designrfix.com.

Performance Auditing: A Firefox Developer Tools Deep Dive

Original Source: https://www.sitepoint.com/performance-auditing-a-firefox-developer-tools-deep-dive/

In this article, we’ll cover Firefox Web Developer Tools (“DevTools”) — a set of tools designed to help developers inspect, debug, profile and optimize the performance of websites and web applications. We’ll particularly look at the tools related to performance, but we’ll also see how to get started using DevTools in general, and learn about some useful settings.

You can access DevTools in different ways:

click on the hamburger menu at the right of the navigation toolbar, click on Web Developer, then choose the sub-tool you want to use
use keyboard combinations, such as Shift+F5 (Windows and macOS) for the Performance tool and Ctrl+Shift+E (Windows) or Cmd+Option+E (macOS) for the Network tool
right-click anywhere in the page a choose Inspect Element.

DevTools Settings

The Firefox DevTools have many options that help developers customize their experience, such as the option to Enable time-stamps in the Web Console, or to Disable HTTP Cache, which is used to simulate first-load performance in all pages that have DevTools open.

You can access the DevTools Settings panel in different ways:

Start by opening DevTools, next:

either click the Settings button in the toolbar
press F1 to show the Settings panel on top of any current tool
press Ctrl+Shift+O (Windows and Linux), Cmd+Shift+O (macOS) to show the Settings panel.

The Firefox DevTools settings

Here you can choose your default tools, the buttons you want to show in the toolbox, themes (dark-light-Firebug) and other advanced settings.

Performance-focused Tools

When analyzing the performance of a web application, you need to differentiate between load-time performance and run-time performance.

Load-time performance answers questions like “what resources are taking too much time to load?” When dealing with run-time performance, we need to focus on JavaScript and CSS (CSS animations in particular) so we’re able to see where the code spends most of its time and what’s causing bottlenecks.

Let’s look at the Network Monitor and the Performance Tool.

The Network Monitor

The Network Monitor

The Network Monitor shows you a tabular view of all network requests that Firefox made (for example, when it’s loading a page, or sending XMLHttpRequests, Fetch API requests etc.).

It can also display request-related HTTP headers, HTTP responses and cookies, and let you search through them. You can also use it to perform, display and save a performance analysis of the current page load.

In a nutshell, this tool can be used to determine how long the browser takes to download different assets of a web page.

You can also use this tool to monitor and single out requests that are slowing or blocking the web page’s fast loading. The Network panel shows you when principal events are fired (DOMContentLoaded and load).

Request Timeline

Each request in the network list has a timeline column which displays timing information related to the request, such as the total time taken to load the resource.

DevTools marks major life-cycle events in the report, like DOMContentLoaded, and page load. The blue refers to the time when the event DOMContentLoaded is fired; the purple line refers to the time when the page’s load event is fired.

Major life-cycle events

DOMContentLoaded vs Load Events

The DOMContentLoaded event fires right when the HTML document is completely loaded and parsed, not including CSS style sheets, images, and frames.

The event load fires when the HTML document and all associated style sheets, images and frames are completely loaded.

Request Details Panel

Once you click on a request in the requests list, you can a see right-docked details pane which has many different tabs such as headers, params, response, timings and security.

For performance, we’ll particularly look at the timing information.

Network Timings

In this pane, there are many timing metrics related to each request:

Network Timings

Blocked is the time spent in a queue waiting for a network connection.

Sending is the time taken for sending the request to the server.

Receiving is the time taken to receive the response from the server or (if it’s cached) to read it from the cache.

Waiting is the total time waited by the client before the first byte has been received. In other performance analysis tools like WebPageTest.org or Chrome’s DevTools, this is called TTFB or Time to First Byte.

There’s also DNS resolution, which is the time taken to resolve the host name of the server, and Connecting, which is the time taken to open a TCP connection.

How to analyze the load time performance

The Network Monitor integrates a performance analysis tool that can be used to analyze the load-time performance of your web page.

To start analyzing the load-time performance, you can:

click the Analyze icon in the bottom status bar
reload your page or make a network request while your Network monitor is open (actually this is going only to show tabular information about requests not do a load-time performance analysis).

Analyzing the load-time performance

The final report shows a pie chart and a corresponding table for the received resources by types: JavaScript, CSS, images and fonts etc. and a summary with the following details:

number of cached responses
total requests
size
transferred size
loading time

Final report

The web page is tested with an empty cache, and with a primed cache.

First load performance

Firefox’s DevTools allow you to analyze the performance of your web application in two different situations:

Without caching, which emulates the first-time visit when assets are still not cached.
With caching, which emulates the second-time visits. The browser has already cached the app’s assets, eliminating many round-trips to the server.

You can also use the Disable Cache setting to emulate the first-time load of a web page when the DevTools are open on any tab.

The post Performance Auditing: A Firefox Developer Tools Deep Dive appeared first on SitePoint.

The Best Image Compression Tools for the Web

Original Source: https://www.webdesignerdepot.com/2018/07/the-best-image-compression-tools-for-the-web/

It’s no real secret that the size of web pages is increasing. We’re adding more and more assets, slowing down sites, and ruining user experience.

But even though we’ve identified the problem, we still won’t take responsibility. Instead, we lean on coders to streamline their output—we ask then to drop useful libraries like jQuery, just because it saves us 80kb. Meanwhile, we’re designing layouts with 1mb images.

If we’re serious about making our sites fast (and we should be), if we’re serious about improving UX (and we should be), if we’re serious about boosting SEO (and we should be), then we need to do something about the real culprit: images.

Images are by far the biggest bloat on sites. And due to the type of images they suit, JPGs are the biggest bloat on the web.

Today we’re going to introduce 14 of the best JPG compression tools, and publish the results of our tests to find the best.

If you just want to know which of these services performs best, scroll to the bottom.

14 Top JPG Compression Tools

We’re comparing these tools for their ability to compress JPGs, because JPGs feature the most complex data, and so are most likely to contribute to site bloat. Some of these tools will also compress other file formats, like PNG.

1. Compress JPEG

Limitation: Maximum 20 files at a time
Cost: Free

Compress Jpeg is a pretty standard service that’s making its money out of advertising. There’s very little feedback as you compress images, it gives you a percentage, and when complete tells you how much it saved as a percentage, but progress isn’t obvious which can be difficult if you’re compressing a lot of images.

2. Compress Photos

Limitation: Maximum 50Mb per image
Cost: Free

Compress.photos is another free site that supports itself with advertising. You have to be careful not to get hijacked by a dark-pattern advert. Click “Add Files” then “Start Upload”. A good range of progress bars gives you the original size of the image you’re compressing and the change in filesize.

Compressor

Limitation: Maximum 10mb per image
Cost: Free

Compressor offers more options—it can handle JPG, PNG, GIF, and SVG, and features lossless or lossy compression. Compressor has a 10mb max file size limit, so it failed to compress two of our test files. The UI is nice to use, but it’s one file at a time, which makes it very slow to use for batches of files. Looking very closely at one of our files there’s a small amount of noise generated that isn’t evident in images optimized by the other tools.

GiftOfSpeed

Limitation: One file at a time
Cost: Free

GiftOfSpeed offers numerous tools for compressing your website, but for comparison purposes we’re only interested in the JPG compression tool. Again, this is a manual tool, meaning you’ve got to manually compress each individual image one at a time. It offers a nice option of changing the level of compression, but unless you’re experienced it’s a case of trial and error to find the best setting.

iLoveImg

Limitation: None
Cost: Free

iLoveIMG is another free tool that’s offering more options than just image compression. You can resize, crop, or rotate images. You can also turn different formats into JPG, or convert JPGs into PNGs or GIFs. iLoveImg feels like a tool for amateurs that want to make changes to snaps from their phone.

ImageRecycle

Limitation: None
Cost: From $10 per 10,000 images

ImageRecycle is a paid tool, so we expected it to be better than the free options. (We tested using the free trial.) It was a little buggy when we tried the multiple file upload—it may be better to upload one file at a time—but you can download them together as a batch. ImageRecycle wouldn’t allow us to compress the final file as the tests exceeded their trial quota, considering how many of these tools are free, that’s unfortunate.

ImageResize.org

Limitation: Up to 20 images
Cost: Free

ImageResize.org is a free tool that’s ideal for people who want to edit images but don’t have an app like Photoshop. You can drag and drop images onto ImageResize.org’s UI, or supply an online URL for the image you want to compress.

ImageSmaller

Limitation: Max 50mb per image, one at a time
Cost: Free

ImageSmaller is a simple script that allows you to compress JPG or PNG images. There is a maximum file upload of 50mb, and you can only upload one image at a time. ImageSmaller also supports itself with advertising, and you have to be careful not to click on a dark pattern advert when using the UI.

JPEGMini

Limitation: Maximum 128mb per image
Cost: Free (with premium options)

JPEGMini is geared towards an Adobe Lightroom/Photoshop plugin. There’s a free online version that enables whole album uploads, which is what we tested. You have to wait for a while, and there’s no visual feedback on progress, and we found the UI confusing. One surprisingly useful feature is that JPEGMini emails you when your files are ready, so you can go do something else while it works.

Kraken

Limitation: None
Cost: from $9

Kraken is one of the most professional feeling tools in this list. The free version has plenty of options, and the pro version of Kraken has even more. Every pro version of Kraken comes with 100mb of trial data, (which is what we used to test). The UI was easy to use, and well designed. It feels like a premium service.

Optimizilla

Limitation: 20 images at a time
Cost: Free

Optimizilla is a really simple site. Just drag your photos onto the drop area, and then watch them upload. Click the download all button at the end to download a zip. Of the free options on this list, Optimizilla feels like the best user experience.

Shortpixel

Limitation: Maximum 50 images at a time
Cost: From free

Shortpixel is geared towards its WordPress plugin that automatically compresses any images that you upload to your media library. There is a 10mb image restriction unless you create an account, once you do the restriction is lifted. The free account has a 100 image quota, and premium options are available. Unexpectedly, in our test, the image with the smallest image dimensions resulted in a larger file size than the next size up!

TinyJPG

Limitation: Maximum 5mb per image, maximum 20 images at a time
Cost: Free

Who doesn’t love a Panda? TinyJPG has a companion TinyPNG site, which is nice to know. There is also the Go Pro option, for just $25 per year, that will upgrade you to a 25mb limit, plus you’ll get hugs from George the Panda.

toolur

Limitation: Maximum 25 images, maximum 30mb per file
Cost: Free

Toolbar is an interesting tool, because despite being free, it has a lot of options. You can specify 7 different compression methods, alter image quality, change the compression type, or resize the images. When testing, we left everything at the default but it’s good to know that you have some flexibility. Unfortunately they decided to include some weak blackhat SEO on their page.

The Results

To test out these services we used three free stock images that you can download here, here, and here. At 100% scale the images are all 2480px by 1860px.

We exported them as JPGs from Adobe Photoshop and used the export feature to create five different versions of each image: 33% scale, 50% scale, 100% scale, 200% scale, and 300% scale. This simulates saving different file sizes for responsive web designs.

When exported straight out of Photoshop, the size of the images are:

Valley – 33% (317kb), 50% (718kb), 100% (2.5mb), 200% (6.2mb), 300% (10.8mb)
Bike – 33% (412kb), 50% (905kb), 100% (2.9mb), 200% (6.9mb), 300% (12.1mb)
Beach – 33% (257kb), 50% (538kb), 100% (1.6mb), 200% (4.1mb), 300% (7.3mb)

Size Tests

The first test is how small the outputted files are. It’s important to remember that large images have lots of room for compression, but small images have less. So we’ve compared the images as percentages.

It’s also important to know that some tools allow you to be more or less aggressive with your compression. For these tests we used the default settings.

Click on the image to see the results in full.

Speed Tests

The second test is how long it takes the various services to compress the whole set of 15 images. This probably doesn’t matter if you’re squashing down one image, but it matters a lot if you’re compressing dozens, or even a whole website’s worth.

When we ran the tests, they were run consecutively, and nothing other than background processes were running at the same time. (The conditions for each test were as identical as possible, but there may have been some minor network variations.)

Click on the image to see the results in full.

Conclusions

The first thing that leaps out at us, is that the JPG compression in Photoshop is terrible. Every single one of the services we tested improved what Photoshop spat out. So if there’s one thing we can learn from this testing, it’s to always compress your images.

Some of the tests were failed (marked in red in the results). With one exception (when the trial account ran out of capacity) this was because some images don’t support very large files. So if you’re compressing small images only, you might find those services useful. Having said that, the results weren’t affected because none of the services that failed were category leaders in any case.

There was no real difference between paid services and free tools. Many of the free options out-performed the paid options.

Compress JPG and Optimizilla produced near-identical files, at identical sizes, and completed the task within fours seconds of each other. So these two different services appear to be the same service skinned with different frontends.

Best General Compression

The very best compression came from Shortpixel, which was consistently the best service in our tests for everything except our smallest images. Strangely, the size of the 33% image was actually larger than the 50% image—so strange that we tested this several times to be sure. Shortpixel struggles when it comes to smaller images, but where Shortpixel really struggles is speed, it took 2 minutes 35 seconds to complete the task, and only looks acceptable on the graph because Compress Photos performed so slowly and distorted the results.

Best Small File Compression

The best small JPG compression came from ImageResize, which produced the smallest 33% file for each of the images. What’s more, ImageResize was close behind ShortPixel for the other image sizes. ImageResize ran through the files in 30 seconds, just 9 seconds slower than the fastest.

Fastest Compression

The speed test is a tie between Kraken, and TinyJPG. Both services ran through all of the files in just 21 seconds. However, TinyJPG failed to compress six of our largest files. So the award for the fastest service goes to Kraken.

Recommendations

If you’re looking for the most aggressive compression, Shortpixel is our recommendation. If you need to compress smaller images then switch to ImageResize. And if you’re compressing lots of images, you value a premium experience, and you’re prepared to pay for the privilege, then use Kraken.

It helps to have access to a variety of services, because they all excel in one way or another. And it’s always worth running your own tests.

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How To Create A Flat Vector Illustration In Affinity Designer

Original Source: https://www.smashingmagazine.com/2018/07/flat-vector-illustration-affinity-designer/

How To Create A Flat Vector Illustration In Affinity Designer

How To Create A Flat Vector Illustration In Affinity Designer

Isabel Aracama

2018-07-11T20:00:02+02:00
2018-07-12T11:08:58+00:00

(This is a sponsored post.) If you are in the design world, chances are that you’ve already heard about Affinity Designer, a vector graphics editor for Apple’s macOS and Microsoft Windows.

It was July 2015 when Serif Europe launched the amazing software that many designers and illustrators like me are using now as their main tool for professional work. Unlike some other packages, its price is really affordable, there’s no subscription model and, as mentioned already, it’s available for both Macs and PCs.

In this article, I would like to walk you through just some of its very user-friendly main tools and features as an introduction to the software and to show you how we can create a nice flat vector illustration of a Volkswagen Beetle. The illustration will scale up to whatever resolution and size needed because no bitmaps will be used.

Note: As of today, July 11, Affinity Designer is also available for the iPad. Although the iPad app’s features and functionality almost completely match the desktop version of Affinity Designer, it relies much more on using the touch screen (and the Apple Pencil) and because of that, you may expect to find some differences in the workflows.

Final image that we’ll be creating in this tutorial.

Final image that we’ll be creating in this tutorial. (View large version)

I will also explain some of the decisions I take and methods I follow as I work. You know the old saying, “All roads lead to Rome”? In this case, many roads will take us where we’d like to get to, but some are better than others.

We will see how to work with the Pen tool to trace the main car outline, how to break curves and segments, how to convert objects into curves, and how to use the wonderful Corner tool. We will also, among other things, learn how to use the Gradient tool, what is a “Smart copy”, how to import a color palette from an image that we can use as a reference for our artwork, how to use masks, and how to create a halftone pattern. Of course, along the way, you will also learn some helpful keyboard shortcuts and commands.

Note: Affinity Designer has three work environments, referred to as “personas”. By default, Affinity Designer is set to the draw persona. To switch from the draw persona to the pixel persona or to the export persona, you have to click on one of the three icons located in the top-left corner of the main window. You can start working in the draw persona and switch to the pixel persona at any time, when you need to combine vectors and bitmaps.

The three work environments: draw persona (leftmost icon), bitmap persona (middle icon) and export persona (rightmost icon).The three work environments: draw persona (leftmost icon), bitmap persona (middle icon) and export persona (rightmost icon). (View large version)

Introduction: The Flat Design Era

In recent years, we’ve seen the rise of “flat design”, in contrast to what is known as skeuomorphic representation in design.

To put it simply, flat design gets rid of the metaphors that skeuomorphic design uses to communicate with users, and we’ve seen these metaphors in design, especially in user interface design, for years. Apple had some of the best examples of skeuomorphism in its early iOS and app designs, and today it is widely used in many industries, such as music software and video games. With Microsoft’s (with Metro) and later Google’s material design and Apple’s iOS 7, mobile apps, user interfaces and most systems and OS’ have moved away from skeuomorphism, using it or elements of it as mere enhancements to a new design language (including gradients and shadows). As you can imagine, illustrations on these systems were also affected by the new design currents, and illustrators and designers started creating artwork that would be consistent with the new times and needs. A whole new world of flat icons, flat infographics and flat illustrations opened in front of our eyes.

iPhone’s home screen (iOS 6 versus iOS 7).

iPhone’s home screen (iOS 6 versus iOS 7). (View large version)

(Image source) (View large version)

(Image source) (View large version)

(Image source) (View large version)

(Image source) (View large version)

Let’s Draw A Flat Illustration!

I am providing here the source file for this work, so you can use it to explore it and to better follow along as we design it. If you do not yet have a copy of Affinity Designer, you can download a trial.

1. Canvas Settings

Open Affinity Designer, and create a new document by clicking Cmd + N (Mac) or Ctrl + N (Windows). Alternatively, you can go to “Menu” → “File” → “New”. Be sure not to check the “Create Artboard” box.

Set the type to “Web”, which will automatically set the field DPI to 72. It should be understood now as PPI, but we won’t dive into the details here. If you want to learn more on the topic, check the following two resources:


It’s PPI not DPI,” Forums, Affinity

“PPI vs. DPI: What’s the Difference?,” Alex Bigman, 99designs

Also, remember that you can change this setting at any time. The vectors’ quality won’t be affected by scaling them.

Set the size to 2000 × 1300 pixels, and click “OK”.

Our white canvas is now set, but before we start, I’d suggest you first save this file and give it a name. So, go to “File” → “Save”, and name it “Beetle”.

2. Importing A Color Palette From An Image

One of the things I use a lot in Affinity Designer is its ability to import the colors contained in an image and creating a palette from them.

Let’s see how this is done.

For the illustration I want to draw, I thought of warm colors, like in a sunset, so I searched Google with this query: “warm colors yellows oranges reds palette”. From all the images it found, I chose one that I liked and copied it into Affinity Designer in my recently created canvas. (You can copy and paste the image to the canvas directly from the browser.)

If the Swatches panel isn’t open yet, use menu “View” → “Studio” → “Swatches”. Click the menu in the top-right corner of the panel, and select the option “Create Palette From Document”, and then click on “As Document Palette”. Click “OK” and you’ll see the colors contained in the image form a new palette in the Swatches panel. The default name for it will be “Palette” if you still haven’t saved your file with a name. In case you have, the name of this palette will be the same as your document, but if you want to rename it, simply go to the menu on the right in the Swatches panel again and select the option “Rename Palette”.

I will call it “Beetle Palette”.

Creating a palette from an image.

Creating a palette from an image. (View large version)

We can now get rid of that reference image, or simply hide it in the Layers panel. We will be using this palette as a guide to create our artwork with harmonious colors.

Interface: Before we continue, I will present a quick overview of the main sections of the user interface in Affinity Designer, and the names of some of the most used tools.

Main areas of the UI in Affinity Designer when using the draw persona.

Main areas of the UI in Affinity Designer when using the draw persona. (View large version)

Tools for the (default) draw persona in Affinity Designer.

Tools for the (default) draw persona in Affinity Designer. (View large version)

3. Creating The Background With The Gradient Tool

The next thing is to create a background. For this, go to the tools displayed on the left side, and select the Rectangle tool. Drag it along the canvas, making sure to give it an initial random fill color so that you can see it. The fill color chip is located in the top toolbar.

Click the Rectangle tool and drag it along the canvas. Fill it with a random color.

Click the Rectangle tool and drag it along the canvas. Fill it with a random color. (View large version)

Next, select the Fill tool (the color wheel icon, or press G on the keyboard), and in the top Context toolbar, select the type: “Linear”.

Select “Linear” from the Fill tool’s contextual menu.

Select “Linear” from the Fill tool’s contextual menu. (View large version)

We have several options here: “None” removes the fill color, “Solid” applies one solid color, and all of the rest are different types of gradients.

To straighten the gradient and make it vertical, place your cursor over one of the ends and pull. When you are near the vertical line, press Shift: This will make it perfectly vertical and perpendicular to the base of the canvas.

To straighten a linear gradient, pull from one end, and then press the Shift key to make it perfectly vertical.To straighten a linear gradient, pull from one end, and then press the Shift key to make it perfectly vertical. (View large version)

Next, in the Context toolbar, click on the color chip, and you’ll see a dialog that corresponds exactly with the gradient we just applied. Click now on the color chip, and an additional dialog will open.

In the combo, click on the “Color” tab, and then select “RGB Hex Sliders”; in the field marked with a #, input the value: FE8876. Press “OK”. You’ll see now how the gradient has been updated to the new color. Repeat this action with the other color stop in the gradient dialog, and input this value: E1C372.

You should now have something like this:

Setting gradient colors.

Setting gradient colors (View large version)

Let’s go to the Layers panel and rename the layer to “Background”. Double-click on it to rename it, and then lock it (by clicking on the little lock icon in the top-right corner).

4. Drawing The Car Outline With The Pen Tool

The next thing we need to do is look for an image that will serve as our reference to draw the outline of the car. I searched Google for “Volkswagen Beetle side view”. From the images I found, I selected one of a green Beetle and copied and pasted it into my document. (Remember to lock the layer with the reference image, so that it doesn’t move accidentally.)

Next, in the side toolbar, select the Pen tool (or press P), zoom in a bit so that you can work more comfortably, and start tracing a segment, following the outline of the car in the picture. Give the stroke an 8-pixel width in the Stroke panel.

Note: You won’t need to create a layer, because the segments you trace will be automatically placed on top of the image.

The Pen tool is one of the most daunting tools for beginners, and it is obviously one of the most important tools to learn in vector graphics. While practice is needed to reach perfection, it is also a matter of understanding some simple actions that will help you use the tool better. Let’s dive into the details!

As you trace with the Pen tool in Affinity Designer, you will see two types of nodes: squared nodes appear first, and as you pull the handles, they will turn into rounded nodes.

Sharp, smooth nodes and handles on a path segment

Sharp, smooth nodes and handles on a path segment (View large version)

Affinity Designer comes with several pen modes, but we will only be using the default one, called “Pen Mode”, and as we trace the car, we will get rid of one of the handles by clicking Alt in such a way that the next section of the segment to be traced will be independent of the previous one, even if connected to it.

Here’s how to proceed. Select the Pen tool, click once, move some distance away, click a second time (a straight line will be created between nodes 1 and 2), drag the second node (this will create a curve), Alt-click the node to remove the second control handle, then proceed with node 3, and so on.

An alternative way would be to select the Pen tool, click once, move some distance away, click a second time (a straight line will be created between nodes 1 and 2), drag the second node (this will create a curve), then, without moving the mouse, Alt-click the second handle’s point to remove this handle, then proceed with node 3, and so on.

Trace the outline of the car and get rid of the handles we don’t need by Alt-clicking.Trace the outline of the car and get rid of the handles we don’t need by Alt-clicking. (View large version)

Note: Don’ be afraid to trace segments that are not perfect. With time, you’ll get a better grip of the Pen tool. For now, it’s not very important that each node and line looks as we want it to look in the end. In fact, Affinity Designer makes it really easy to amend segments and nodes, so tracing a rough line to start is just fine. For more insight on how to easily use the Pen tool (for beginners), check out Isabel Aracama’s video tutorial.

5. Resculpting Segments And Using The Corner Tool

What we need now is to make all of those rough lines look smooth and curvy. First, we will pull the straight segments to smoothen them, and then we will improve them using the Corner tool.

Click the Node tool in the side toolbar, or select it by pressing A on your keyboard. Now, start pulling segments to follow the lines of your reference picture. You can also use the handles to help make the line take the shape you need by moving and pulling them accordingly. Just do it in such a way that it all fits the reference image, but don’t bother much if it’s not yet perfect. With the Node tool (A), you can both select and move nodes, but you can also click and drag the curves themselves to change them.

Resculpt and correct segments with the Node tool A.Resculpt and correct segments with the Node tool (A). (View large version)

Once all of the segments are where we need them, we are going to smoothen their corners using the Corner tool (shortcut: C). This is one of my favorite tools in Affinity Designer. The live Corner tool allows you to adjust your nodes and segments to perfection. Select it by pressing C, or select it from the Tools sidebar. The method is pretty simple: Pass the corner tool over the sharp nodes (squared nodes) that you want to smoothen. If you need to, switch back to the Node tool (A) to adjust a section of a segment by pulling it or its handles. (Smooth nodes (rounded nodes) don’t allow for more softening, and they will display a smaller circle the moment you select the Corner tool.)

View large version

View large version

Use the Corner tool on sharp nodes to smoothen the lines.Use the Corner tool on sharp nodes to smoothen the lines. (View large version)

Once our corners and segments look good, we’ll want to fill the shape and change the color of the stroke. Select the closed curve line that we just created for the car, click on the fill color chip, and in the HEX color field input FFCF23. Click on the stroke color chip beside it and input 131000.

This is what you should have after applying the fill color and stroke color.

This is what you should have after applying the fill color and stroke color. (View large version)

Create now a shape with the Pen tool, and fill it with black (000000). Place it behind the car’s bodywork (the yellow shape). The exact shape of the new object that you will create does not really matter, except that its bottom side needs to be straight, as in the image below. Place it behind the main bodywork (the yellow shape) via either the Layers panel or through the menu “Arrange” → “Back One”.

Black shape behind the car bodywork.

Black shape behind the car bodywork (View large version)

6. Creating The Wheels Using Smart Copy

We need to put the wheels in place next. In the Tools, pick the Ellipse tool, and drag over the canvas, creating a circle the same size as the wheel in the reference picture. Click Shift as you drag to make the circle proportionate. Additionally, holding Ctrl (Windows) or Cmd (Mac), you can create a perfect circle from the center out.

Note: If you need to, hide the layers created thus far to see better, or simply reduce their opacity temporarily. You can change the opacity by selecting any shape and pressing a number on the keyboard, from 1 to 9, where 1 will apply a 10% opacity and 9 a 90% opacity value. To reset the opacity to 100%, press 0 (zero).

Choose a random color that contrasts with the rest. I like to do so initially just so that I can see the shapes well contrasted and differentiated. When I am happy with them, I apply the final color. Set the opacity to 50% (click 5 on the keyboard) to be able to see through as you draw it.

Zoom into your wheel shape. Press Z to select the Zoom tool, and drag over the shape while holding Alt key, or double-click on the thumbnail corresponding to it in the Layers panel. (It doesn’t need to be previously selected, although this will help you to visually locate it in the Layers panel.)

We will now learn how to use Smart copy, and we will paste some concentric circles.

Select the circle and press Cmd + J (Mac) or Ctrl + J (Windows). A new circle will be placed on top of the original one. Select it. This command is found under “Edit” → “Duplicate”, and it’s also known as Smart copy or Smart duplicate.

Click Shift + Cmd (Mac) or Shift + Ctrl (Windows), and drag in to transform it into a smaller concentrical circle. Repeat three times, reducing a bit more in size each time, to fit your reference. Smart duplicating a shape by pressing Shift + Cmd (Mac) or Shift + Ctrl (Windows) will make the shape transform in a relative way. This will happen from your third smart-duplicated shape onwards.

smart copy via keyboard shortcutsSmart copy via Cmd + J or Ctrl + J. (View large version)

So, we have our concentric circles for the wheel, and now we have to change the colors. Go to the Swatches panel, and in the previously created palette, choose colors that work well with the yellow that we have applied to the car’s bodywork. You can select a color and modify it slightly to adapt to what you think works best. We need to apply fill and stroke colors. Remember to give the stroke the same width as the rest of the car (8 pixels) except for the innermost circle, where we will apply a stroke of 11.5 pixels. Also, remember to put back to 100% the opacity of each concentric circle.

I chose these colors, from the outer to inner circles: 5D5100, 918A00, CFA204, E5DEAB.

Now we want to select and group all of them together. Select them all and press Cmd + G (Mac) or Ctrl + G (Windows). Name the new group “Front Wheel” in the Layers panel. Duplicate this group and, while pressing Shift, select it and drag along the canvas until it overlaps with the back wheel. Name the layer accordingly.

The car should look similar to this now.

The car should look similar to this now. (View large version)

7. Breaking Curves And Clipping Masks To Draw The Inner Lines Of The Car’s Bodywork

To keep working, either hide all layers or bring down the opacity so that they don’t get in your way. We need to trace the front and back fenders. We have to do the same as what we did for the main bodywork. Pick the Pen tool and trace an outline over it.

Once it is traced, modify it by using the handles, nodes and Corner tool. I also modified the black shape behind the car a bit, so that it shows a bit more in the lower part of the body work.

Fenders added to the car.

Fenders added to the car. (View large version)

Now we want to trace some of the inner lines that define the car. For this, we will duplicate the main yellow shape, remove its fill color and place it onto our illustration in the canvas.

Press A on the keyboard, and click on any of the bottom nodes of the segment. In the top Context toolbar, click on “Action” → “Break Curve”. You will see now that the selected node has turned into a red-outlined squared node. Click on it and pull anywhere. As you can see, the segment is now open. Click the Delete or Backspace key (Windows) or the Delete key (Mac), and do the same with all of the bottom nodes, leaving just the leftmost and rightmost ones, and also being very careful that what is left of the top section of the segment is not deformed at all.

(View large version)

I use this method for one main reason: Duplicating an existing line allows for a more consistent look and for more harmonious lines.

Select now the newly opened curve, and make it smaller in such a way that it fits into the main yellow shape when you place them on top of one another. In the Layers panel, drag this curve into the yellow shape layer to create a clipping mask. The reason for creating a clipping mask is simple: We want an object inside another object so that they do not overlap (i.e. both objects are visible), but one nested inside the other. Not doing so would result in some bits of the nested object being visible, which is not what we want; we need perfect, clean-cut lines.

Note: Clipping masks are not to be mistaken for masks. You will know you’re clipping and not masking because of the thumbnail (masks show a crop-like icon when applied) and because when you are about to clip, a blue stripe is displayed horizontally, a bit more than halfway across the layer. Masks, on the other hand, display a small vertical blue stripe beside the thumbnail.

Clipping versus masking in Affinity Designer

Clipping versus masking in Affinity Designer (View large version)

Clipping mask once it is appliedClipping mask once it is applied (View large version)

Now that we have applied our clipping mask to insert the newly created segment inside the main shape of the car, I’ve broken some nodes and moved some others around a bit in order to place them exactly how I want. I’ve stretched the width a bit, and separated the front from the rest of the segment using exactly the same methods we’ve already seen. Then, I applied a bit more Corner tool to soften whatever I felt needed to be softened. Finally, with the Pen tool, I added some extra nodes and segments to create the rest of the inner lines that define the car.

Note: In order to select an object in a mask, a clipping mask or a group when not selecting the object directly in the Layers panel, you have to double-click until you select the object, or hold Ctrl (Windows) or Cmd (Mac) and click.

Adding extra lines to a segment.Adding extra lines to a segment (View large version)

After some amendments and tweaking using the mentioned methods, our car looks like this:

How the car looks after a little tweaking of the segments and nodes

How the car looks after a little tweaking of the segments and nodes (View large version)

8. Drawing The Windows Using Some Primitive Shapes

In the side Toolbar, select the Rounded Rectangle tool. Drag on the canvas to create a shape. The size of the shape should fit in the car’s bodywork and look proportionate. No matter how you create it, you will be able to resize it later, so don’t worry much.

Note: When you create a shape with strokes and resize it, be sure to check “Scale with object” in the Stroke panel if you want the stroke to scale in proportion with the object. I recommend that you visually compare the difference between having this option checked and unchecked when you need to resize an object with a stroke.

Make sure this is checked if you plan to resize your artwork, so that it scales the strokes accordingly.

Make sure this is checked if you plan to resize your artwork, so that it scales the strokes accordingly. (View large version)

Once you have placed your rounded rectangle on the canvas, fill it with a blue-ish colour. I’ve used #93BBC1. Next, select it with the Node tool (press A). You will now see a little orange circle in the top-left corner. If you pull outwards or inwards, you’ll see how the angle in that corner changes. In the top Context toolbar, you can uncheck “Single radius”, and apply the angle you want to each corner of the rectangle individually. Uncheck it, and pull inwards on the tiny orange circle in the top-left corner. If you pull, you will be able to round it to a certain percentage, but you can also input the desired value in the input field for it, or even use the slider it comes with (it will show whether you’ve clicked on the little chevron). Let’s apply a value of 100%.

View large version

How the rounded rectangle primitive shape looks in default mode and how it changes when we uncheck the single radius box. Now we can manipulate the corners individually.

How the rounded rectangle primitive shape looks in default mode and how it changes when we uncheck the single radius box. Now we can manipulate the corners individually. (View large version)

Primitive shapes are not so flexible in terms of vector manipulation (compared to curves and lines), so, in order to apply further changes to such a shape (beyond fill, stroke, corners, width and height), we will need to convert it to curves.

Note: Once you convert a primitive shape into curves, there is no way to go back, and there will be no option to manipulate the shape through the little orange stops. If you need further tweaking, you will need to do it with the Corner tool.

Select the rectangle with the Node tool (A), and in the top Context toolbar, click the button “Convert to Curves”. The bounding box will disappear, and all of the nodes forming the shape will be shown. Also, note how in the Layers panel, the name of the object changes from “Rounded Rectangle” to “Curve”.

Now you need to manipulate the shape in order to create an object that looks like a car window. Look at the reference picture to get a better idea of how it should look. Also, tweak the rest of the drawn lines in the car, so that it all fits together nicely. Don’t worry if the shapes don’t look perfect (yet). Getting them right is a matter of practice! Using the Pen tool, help yourself with the Alt and Shift keys and observe how differently the segment nodes behave. After you have created the front window, go ahead and create the back one, following the same method.

We also need to create the reflections of the window, which we’ll do by drawing three rectangles, filling them with white color, overlapping them with a bit of offset from one another, and setting the opacity to 50%.

Place the cursor over the top bounding-box white circle, and when it turns into a curved arrow with two ends, move it to give the rectangles an angle. Create a clipping mask, dragging it over the window shape in the Layers panel as we saw before. You can also do this by following the following alternative methods:

Under the menu “Layer” → “Insertion” → “Insert Inside” the selected window object.

With the keyboard shortcut Ctrl + X (Windows) and Cmd + X (Mac), select your window object → “Edit” → “Paste Inside” (Ctrl/Cmd + Alt + V).

Repeat this for the back window. To add visual interest, you can duplicate the reflections and slightly change the rectangles’ opacities and widths.

Create the reflections on the windows, and clip them inside.Create the reflections on the windows, and clip them inside. (View large version)

9. Adding Visual Interest: Halftone Pattern, Shadows And Reflections

Before we start with the shadows and reflections, we need to add an extra piece onto the car so that all of the elements look well integrated. Let’s create the piece that sits below the doors. It is a simple rectangle. Place it on the corresponding layer order, so that it looks like the picture below, and keep inserting all of the pieces together so that it looks compact. I will also move a bit the front fender to make the front shorter.

The car, once the final bodywork pieces have been placed and tweaks made. We’re getting there!

The car, once the final bodywork pieces have been placed and tweaks made. We’re getting there! (View large version)

Now let’s create the halftone pattern.

Grab the Pen tool (P) and trace a line on your canvas. In the Stroke panel (you can also do this in the Pen tool’s Context toolbar section for the stroke, at the top), set the size to something like 7 pixels. We can easily change this value later if needed. Select the “Dash” line style, and the rest of the dialog settings should be as follows:

Settings for the first part of creating the halftone pattern.

Settings for the first part of creating the halftone pattern. (View large version)

Now, duplicate this line, and place the new one below with a bit of an offset to the left.

View large version

Group both lines, duplicate this group with a Smart copy, and create something like this:

Smart copy the first two lines, and create the whole pattern.

Smart copy the first two lines, and create the whole pattern. (View large version)

When you drag a selection in Affinity Designer, only objects that are completely within the selection area will be selected. If you want to select all objects without having to drag over all of them completely, you have the following options:

Mac: Holding the ⌃ (Ctrl) key will allow you to select all objects touching the selection marquee as you draw it.

Windows: Click and hold the left mouse button, start dragging a selection, and then click and hold the right mouse button as well. As you are holding both buttons, all objects touching the selection marquee will be selected.

Alternatively, you can make this behavior a global preference. On Mac, go to “Affinity Designer” → “Preferences” → “Tools”, and check “Select object when intersects with selection marquee”. On Windows, go to “Edit” → “Preferences” → “Tools”, and check “Select object when intersects with selection marquee”.

To make the illustration more interesting, we are going to vary the beginning and end of some of the lines a bit. To do this, we select the Node tool (A), and move the nodes a bit inwards.

It should now look like this:

View large version

To apply the pattern to our design, make sure everything is grouped, copy and paste it into our car artwork, reduce its opacity to 30%, and also reduce the size (making sure “Scale with object” is checked in the Stroke panel). We will then create a clipping mask. It is important to keep consistency in the angle, color and size of this pattern throughout the illustration.

Applying the halftone mask.Applying the halftone mask (View large version)

Now, apply the halftone pattern to the back fender and to the car’s side; make sure to create a placeholder for it first, be it the fender itself or a new shape. Make some tweaks if you need to adapt the pattern to your drawing in a harmonious way. You can change the overall size, the dots’ size, the transparency, the angle and so on, but try to be consistent when applying these changes to the pattern bits.

For the shadow below the windows, I drew a curve to be the placeholder, and applied the color #CFA204 so that it looks darker.

10. Creating The Remaining Elements Of The Car

Now, it’s all about creating the rest of the elements that make up the car: the bumpers, the back wheel and the surf board, plus the design stickers.

The front and back lights
For the front light, switch to the Segment tool and draw the shape. Then we need to rotate it a bit and place it somewhere below the car’s main bodywork. The same can be done for the back light but using the Rectangle tool. The colors are #FFDA9D for the front light and #FF0031 for the back light.

Creating the front lightCreating the front light (View large version)

Surfboard
To create the surfboard, we will use the Ellipse tool and draw a long ellipse. Convert it to curves and pull up the lower segment, adjusting a bit the handles to give it the ideal shape.

Creating the surf boardCreating the surf board (View large version)

Now, just create two small rounded rectangles, with a little extra line on top for the board’s rack. Place them in a layer behind the car’s main body shape.

Board rack pieces

Board rack pieces (View large version)

With the Pen tool, add the rudder. Its color is #B2E3EF. And for the stroke, use a 6-pixel width and set the color to #131000.

Spare wheel
Now let’s create the the spare wheel! Switch to the Rounded Rectangle tool. Drag over the canvas to draw a shape. Color it #34646C, and make the stroke #131000 and 8 pixels in size. The size of the spare wheel should fit the proportions of your car and should have the same diameter as the other wheels, or perhaps just a bit smaller. Pull the orange dots totally inwards, and give it a 45-degree angle. For the rack that holds the wheel, create a small piece with the Rectangle tool, and give it the same 45-degree angle, color it #4A8F99, and make the stroke #131000 and 4.5 pixels in size. Create the last piece that rests over the car in the same way, with a color of #34646C, and a stroke that is #131000 and 4.5 pixels in size.

Lastly, let’s create a shadow inside the wheel to add some more interest. For this, we’ll create a clipping mask and insert an ellipse shape with a color of #194147, without a stroke.

Note: We may want to create the same shadow effect for the car wheels. Use the Rectangle tool and a color of #312A00, create a clipping mask, and insert it in the wheel shape, placing it halfway.

Three simple shapes to draw the spare wheel and its rack

Three simple shapes to draw the spare wheel and its rack (View large version)

Bumpers
For the bumpers, we will apply the boolean operation “add” to two basic shapes and then clip-mask a shadow, just as we did for the wheels.

Boolean operations are displayed in the section of icons labeled “Geometry” (Mac) and “Operations” (Windows). (Yes, the label names are inconsistent, but the Affinity team will likely update them in the near future, and one of the labels will become the default for both operating systems.) If you don’t see them in the upper toolbar, go to “View” → “Customize Toolbar”, and drag and drop them into the toolbar.

Important: If you want the operation to be non-destructive, hold the Alt key while clicking on the “Add” icon (to combine the two basic shapes).

Boolean operations: Add, Subtract, Intersect, Divide, Combine.

Boolean operations: Add, Subtract, Intersect, Divide, Combine. (View large version)

Applying the (destructive) Add operation to create a single shape from two shapes.

Applying the (destructive) Add operation to create a single shape from two shapes. (View large version)

Note: If you try to paste the “shadow” object inside the bumper, it will only work if the bumper is one whole object (a destructive operation). So, if you used Alt + “Add”, this will not work now. However, you can still work around this by converting the Compound shape (the result of a non-destructive operation that is a group of two objects) to one Curve (one whole vector object). You just need to click on the Compound shape, then in the menu go to “Layer” → “Convert to Curves” (or use the key combination Ctrl + Enter).

Back window
We are still missing the back window, which we will create with the Pen tool, and the decoration for the car. For the two colored stripes, we need the Square tool and then clip-mask these two rectangles into the main bodywork. The size is 30 × 380 pixels, and the colors are #0AC8CE and #FF6500. Clip them by making sure you’ve put them on the right layer, so that the dark lines we drew before are above them.

Number 56
For the number “56” decoration, use the Artistic Text tool (“T”), and type in “56”. Choose a nice font that matches the style of the illustration, or try the one I’ve used.

The color for the text object is #FFF3AD.

(I added an extra squared shape behind the back fender, which will look like the end of the exhaust pipe. The color is #000000.)

Color strips
Now that we’ve done this, check the color stripes and the window they overlap with. As you can see (and because we put some transparency in the window glass), the orange stripe is visible through it. Let’s use some Boolean power again to fix this.

Bumpers and exhauster added. Check out the overlapped window and the orange stripe!

Bumpers and exhauster added. Check out the overlapped window and the orange stripe! (View large version)

Duplicate the window object. Select both the window object (the one you just duplicated) and the orange stripe in the Layers panel. Apply a “subtract” operation.

Stage 1, before the subtract operation.

Stage 1, before the subtract operation. (View large version)

tage 2, once the subtract operation is applied.

Stage 2, once the subtract operation is applied. (View large version)

Now, the orange stripe has the perfect shape, fitting the window in such a way that they don’t overlap.

Stripe and window with subtraction operation applied.

Stripe and window with subtraction operation applied. (View large version)

Smoke
To create the smoke from the exhaust, draw a circle with a white stroke, 5.5 pixels in size and no fill. Transform it to curves and break one of its points. From the bottom node, trace a straight line with the Pen tool.

Duplicate this “broken” circle, and resize to smaller circles, and flip and place them so that they look like this:

Creating the exhaust smoke

Creating the exhaust smoke (View large version)

Note: Now that the car is finished, group all of its layers together. It will be much easier to keep working if you do so!

11. Creating The Ground And The Background Elements.

Ground
Let’s trace a simple line for the ground, and add two bits breaking it in order to create visual interest and suggest a bit of movement. We also want to add an extra piece to create the ground. For this, we will use the Rectangle tool and draw a rectangle with a gradient color of #008799 for the left stop and #81BEC7 for the right stop. Give it 30% opacity.

Gradient for the ground piece and the grouped car layers for a clean view in the Layers panel.

Gradient for the ground piece and the grouped car layers for a clean view in the Layers panel. (View large version)

Clouds
For the clouds, select the Cloud tool from the list of (primitive) vector shapes. Draw a cloud by holding Shift to keep the proportions. Make it white. Transform it into curves, and with the Node tool (A) select the bottom nodes and delete them. Sub-select the bottom-left and bottom-right nodes (after deleting all of the others), and then in the Context toolbar, select “Convert to Sharp” in the Convert section. This will make your bottom segment straight. Apply some transparency with the Transparency tool (Y), and duplicate this cloud. Place the clouds in your drawing, spread apart as you wish and in different sizes.

My clouds have 12 bubbles and an inner radius of 82%. You can do the same or change these values to your liking.

Creating the clouds with the Cloud tool and the Transparency toolCreating the clouds with the Cloud tool and the Transparency tool (View large version)

Palm trees
To create the palm trees, use the Crescent tool from the list of primitive shapes on the left. Give it a gradient color, with a left stop of #F05942 and a right stop of #D15846.

Drag to draw the crescent shape. Move its center of rotation to the bottom of the bounding box, and give it a -60-degree angle.

The center of rotation can be made visible in the Contextual toolbar section for the Move (and Node) tool. It looks like a little crosshair icon. When you click on it, the crosshair for moving the rotation center of an object will show. Duplicate it, either via Cmd + C and Cmd + V (Mac) or Ctrl + C and Ctrl + V (Windows), or by clicking and then Alt + dragging on the object, and move the angle of the new crescent to -96 degrees. Make it a bit smaller. Copy the two shapes and flip them horizontally.

I also created and extra crescent.

Creating the palm leavesCreate the palm leaves (View large version)

To create the indentations on the leaves, transform the object to curves, add a node with the Node tool, and pull inwards. To make the vortex sharp, use “Convert” → “Sharp”.

Creating the leaves’ indentationsCreating the leaves’ indentations (View large version)

Create the trunk of the palm tree with the Pen tool, group all of the shapes together, and apply an “add” boolean. This way, all of the shapes will transform into just one. Apply a 60% opacity to it.

The palm tree once the Add boolean operation has been applied.

The palm tree once the Add boolean operation has been applied (View large version)

Duplicate the tree shape several times, changing the sizes and tweaking to make the trees slightly different from one another. (Making them exactly the same would result in a less interesting image.)

The last thing we need to make is the sun.

The sun
For this, simply draw an ellipse and apply a color of #FFFFBA to it. Apply a transparency with the Transparency tool (Y), where the bottom is transparent and gets opaque at the top.

Transparency applied to the sun shape

Transparency applied to the sun shape (View large version)

Now we will add some detail by overlapping several rounded rectangles over the sun circle and subtracting them (click Alt for a non-destructive action, if you prefer).

Applying a subtract operationApplying a subtract operation (View large version)

Place your sun in the scene, and we are done!

12. A Note On The Stacking Order (And Naming Of Layers)

While you work, and as the number of objects (layers) grows, which will also make your illustration more and more complex, keep in mind the stacking order of your layers. The sooner you start naming the layers and placing them in the right order, the better. Also, lock those layers that you’re done with (especially for things such as the background), so that they don’t get in the way as you work.

In this illustration, the order of elements from bottom to top is:

background,
ground,
sun,
clouds,
palm trees,
car.

Conclusion

I hope you could follow all of the steps with no major problems and now better understand some of Affinity Designer’s main tools and actions. (Of course, if you have some questions or need help, leave a comment below!)

These tools will allow you to create not only flat illustrations, but many other kinds of artwork as well. The tools, actions and procedures we’ve used here are some of the most useful and common that designers and illustrators use daily (including me), be it for simple illustration projects or much more complex ones.

However, even my most complex illustrations usually need the same tools that we’ve seen in action in this tutorial! It’s mainly a matter of understanding how much you can get out of each tool.

Remember the few important tips, such as locking the layers that could get in your way (or using half-transparency), stacking the layers in the right order, and naming them, so that even the most complex of illustrations are easy to organize and work with. Practice often, and try to organize things so that your workflow improves — this will lead to better artwork and better time management as well.

Also, to learn more about how to create this type of illustration, check out the video tutorial that I posted on my YouTube channel.

The completed Volkswagen Beetle illustration.

The completed Volkswagen Beetle illustration. (View large version)

Smashing Editorial
(mb, ms, ra, yk, al, il)

How to draw a big cat with pastels

Original Source: http://feedproxy.google.com/~r/CreativeBloq/~3/6EAg0WMujUg/draw-a-big-cat-with-pastels

The softness and luminosity of pastel sticks make them the ideal choice for backgrounds in my pastel drawings; whereas pastel pencils (when sharpened to a fine point) have two types of lead for precision: hard and soft. However, I personally find these attributes are not as important as colour range. 

How to draw a landscape with pastels

I work mainly from photographs. This allows me to make any changes to the drawn composition should I wish to do so. In choosing this particular shot, I was able to capture a sense of the tiger's presence, which I try to convey with all my work. Not only did it present great tonal values, but also areas of really dark contrast against the lighter shades. The combination of these aspects always makes for a great painting.

As I select my colours ready for my painting, I use spare pieces of Pastelmat as testers to find the correct shades I wish to use. Once I've started, I never use a colour I have not already selected, as a small amount of a new shade would stand out in the painting. I always use Pastelmat for my pastel work – the combination of this surface with pastel pencils is ideal for showing off the effectiveness of the medium. 

For this piece, I use the following materials:

Anthracite Pastelmat 360 gsmWinsor & Newton Artists' Soft Pastels (for the background)Hard Conté sticks (for the underpainting)Pastel pencils including Derwent, Faber-Castell and Caran D'acheConté 630 White for the whiskersA HB Pencil for sketching
01. The original drawing 

Don’t put too much detail into your initial sketch

I use a general HB pencil to sketch the scene. I avoid a great deal of detail as I tend to remove the lines, using an eraser after transferring it to the Pastelmat. The lines show through the pastel using tracedown paper. 

02. Start from a focal point

sketch of tiger with eyes filled in

Grab the viewer’s attention by starting with the eyes

I always start with the eye area as this is the focal point to any animal portrait painting. I begin with the white highlights first, and then add the palest colours proceeded by the darker shades in and around the pupil. Following the pupil, I leave gaps in the blackness of the eyelid for the white fur to drop down. 

I always find it's best to establish some of the tiger's black stripes in advance, as the white fur sits over the top of its edges. Next, I apply the green and ochre hues over the white in light fine strokes, finally continuing with the orange across the nose area. This area is then worked from dark to light – all using pastel pencils.

03. Establish head shape

tiger's head in sketch

Work in a background edge first to show up the fine hairs

Having established a starting point, I continue above the eye area. I apply a background edge using a soft pastel in black, to account for all the fine hairs that run off the tiger's contour – especially around the ears. After edging the ear from orange, ochre then to cream, the centre is a layer of black, ochre and green all smudged together. I then draw in lots of fine white curly lines, topped with a layer of green and cream. The lines are random, but run in the direction of the tiger's form and shape.

04. Colour the cheek

tiger painting half done

Build up the side of the head, working in the direction of the fur

Continuing with the side of the head, I use oranges, ochres, and creams once again, noting that the layers of fur are running downwards. I work on the section directly underneath the eye using greens and greys first. I then use white to cover the coloured layers using wavy lines, exposing the original underpainting. I add green to the whiter area, then lastly, I add a layer of orange – ready for the nose. 

05. Get the nose right

tiger painting with nose

Take time to ensure that you capture the nose’s structure properly

The nose area is the most challenging as its structure spreads out into various directions. The line work runs above the eye, across at the bridge of the nose and curves in a downward stroke half way across the width of the nose, leaving a small triangular patch sitting centrally, just underneath the bridge. I follow this to the tip of the nose, using small light strokes of ochre and cream, continuing with darker shades in a circular motion to the side for depth. 

As I reach the fleshy part of the nose, I use grey before edging off in white, then I'm ready to apply the palest of pinks for the nose. Before applying the highlight of white, I add a dash of crimson and ochre, finishing off with black for the nostril. 

06. Work on muzzle and mouth

tiger painting with muzzle and mouth

Don’t forget the whiskers!

I now begin working around the cat's muzzle, putting in all the black areas first, sweeping in with the white at a diagonal angle. However, I make sure to leave space for the whiskers, which I drew in with Conté 630 White. I then work on the shadow areas using grey and green in the lower corner of the bottom lip over the black. 

I now need to create a 2D effect on the teeth, so I paint a mixture of ochre and yellow on the backs of the teeth. Moving towards the middle, I paint in a yellow towards the front, then a cream on the bottom half, with a white at the tip of the teeth. Once I'm happy with the result, I blend a small amount of pink into the black behind the teeth. I then proceed to the chin, which is all fine strokes of white, plus yellow, green and grey for the shadow areas.

07. Focus on underpainting

Tiger portrait with hard pastel sticks

Use hard pastel sticks for your underpainting

Having completed the main facial features, I now move onto the underpainting. This is not only a great way to define colour values and contrast, but also adds depth and body. Without it, the image would appear flat and lifeless. With the use of hard pastel sticks, I establish where the lights and darks are in my painting. This prepares the base ready for the details, which are drawn over the top in pastel pencil. 

08. Add layers

long fur close up of tiger painting

Give your picture depth by adding in layers of longer fur

In this step, I paint the longer fur between the face and neck. Starting with the black stripe first, I quickly move onto the white layers, rubbing them lightly into the Pastelmat's base, as I add a layer of yellow and ochre part way through. Shamrock and grey in the shadow areas keep the luminosity in the pastel layers fresh and transparent. Finally, I add fine, light spontaneous strokes, some more heavy than others.

09. Emphasise contrast

tiger painting with contrast added

Bring in further depth by emphasising the tiger’s natural contrasts

I start with the darkest area, the middle section, so that I can build my colours from dark to light bearing in mind where the contrast is. I lay down black first – for the stripes as well as the shadow area. I then work towards the top with a barely visible, very dark orange. I use a golden yellow to highlight the edges of the fur and a lemon with an upward stroke as the fur reaches the top of the tiger. The highlight is cream, with several white strokes done with an edging of tiny orange pencil marks. 

The bottom pattern is a bit tricky: I use orange into cream at a diagonal angle, flicking the pencil out at the bottom edges and blending for a natural look. I add black and grey between each shape, running into white near the bottom.

10. Create the background

tiger painting with black background

Add a black background then soften it with orange, green and cream

For the background, I cover the Pastelmat in a soft black pastel, which I rub in using an artist's sponge. I then work in a mixture of orange, green and cream directly to the side of the cat to add a warmth in the shadows – still using soft pastels with a circular motion.

This article was originally published in Paint & Draw.

Related articles:

How to add drama to your pastel artworksCarbOthello Pastel Pencil Set (24) reviewHow to fix your finished pastel artwork

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